It is a metaphor of dwarfs standing on the shoulders of giants (Latin: nanos gigantum humeris insidentes) and expresses the meaning of \"discovering truth by building on previous discoveries\". This concept has been dated to the 12th century and, according to John of Salisbury, is attributed to Bernard of Chartres. But its most familiar and popular expression occurs in a 1675 letter by Isaac Newton: \"if I have seen further [than others], it is by standing on the shoulders of giants.\"
An unknown attribution to Bernard of Chartres from John of Salisbury in 1159, John wrote in his Metalogicon: \"Bernard of Chartres used to compare us to dwarfs perched on the shoulders of giants. He pointed out that we see more and farther than our predecessors, not because we have keener vision or greater height, but because we are lifted up and borne aloft on their gigantic stature.\" However, according to Umberto Eco, the most ancient attestation of the phrase dates back to Priscian cited by Guillaume de Conches.
The visual image (from Bernard of Chartres) appears in the stained glass of the south transept of Chartres Cathedral. The tall windows under the rose window show the four major prophets of the Hebrew Bible (Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and Daniel) as gigantic figures, and the four New Testament evangelists (Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John) as ordinary-size people sitting on their shoulders. The evangelists, though smaller, \"see more\" than the huge prophets (since they saw the Messiah about whom the prophets spoke).
Should Joshua the son of Nun endorse a mistaken position, I would reject it out of hand, I do not hesitate to express my opinion, regarding such matters in accordance with the modicum of intelligence allotted to me. I was never arrogant claiming \"My Wisdom served me well\". Instead I applied to myself the parable of the philosophers. For I heard the following from the philosophers, The wisest of the philosophers was asked: \"We admit that our predecessors were wiser than we. At the same time we criticize their comments, often rejecting them and claiming that the truth rests with us. How is this possible\" The wise philosopher responded: \"Who sees further a dwarf or a giant Surely a giant for his eyes are situated at a higher level than those of the dwarf. But if the dwarf is placed on the shoulders of the giant who sees further ... So too we are dwarfs astride the shoulders of giants. We master their wisdom and move beyond it. Due to their wisdom we grow wise and are able to say all that we say, but not because we are greater than they.
Blaise Pascal, in the \"Preface to the Treatise on the Vacuum\" expresses the same idea, without talking about shoulders, but rather about the knowledge handed down to us by the ancients as steps that allow us to climb higher and see farther than they could:
Against this notion, Friedrich Nietzsche argues that a dwarf (the academic scholar) brings even the most sublime heights down to his level of understanding. In the section of Thus Spoke Zarathustra (1882) entitled \"On the Vision and the Riddle\", Zarathustra climbs to great heights with a dwarf on his shoulders to show him his greatest thought. Once there however, the dwarf fails to understand the profundity of the vision and Zarathustra reproaches him for \"making things too easy on [him]self.\" If there is to be anything resembling \"progress\" in the history of philosophy, Nietzsche in \"Philosophy in the Tragic Age of the Greeks\" (1873) writes, it can only come from those rare giants among men, \"each giant calling to his brother through the desolate intervals of time\", an idea he got from Schopenhauer's work in Der handschriftliche Nachlass.
\"We are proud to join Senator Bob Menendez in celebrating and recognizing the significant impact and central role of African Americans in U.S. history. Our strength as a nation is inextricably linked to the resilience, ingenuity, perseverance and intelligence of African American people,\" said East Orange Mayor Ted R. Green. \"East Orange is home to an exceptionally diverse group of people from the Black Diaspora who celebrate black excellence every single day. During this Black History Month, as I reflect on how much we have achieved standing upon the shoulders of giants like our own Dionne Warwick and Senator Ronald Rice, I also am reminded of how far we still have to go to fulfill the dreams of our ancestors.\"
Almost all research relies on those who have made previous discoveries. Future success hinges on making every one of those discoveries, including the underlying data, available to others. NSIDC retains teams of scientists, project leads, and data specialists who work with in-house technical writers to make sure data citations increasingly find their way onto references lists, lending their weight to future research. If researchers must stand on the shoulders of others, including data citations gives them a leg up.
In (1992), Ogden Lindsley published a paper describing the potential for tools such as programmed instruction, precision teaching, and direct instruction and advocated that stakeholders for childhood education begin demanding these techniques. Lindsley would be proud of the work of KcATC. Through informed integration of contemporary behavior analysis (e.g., functional analyses, the verbal behavior approach, criterion-referenced assessments, stimulus control topography coherence theory) with the time-tested skill acquisition approaches that Lindsley advocated, KcATC is well positioned on the shoulders of Lindsley and Skinner, looking optimistically to a future where KcATC hopes to begin expanding its services to teenagers with autism, providing home services to children with autism and children at risk for autism and systematizing their methods to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of child and staff learning.
This is one of the most frequently used quotations in scientific enquiry, alluded to by researchers of all backgrounds who wish to acknowledge their own limitations when faced with the complexity of their subject. It is a quotation which varies enormously in its formulation. Another version is \"We see further when standing on the shoulders of giants\". But the essential metaphor remains the same. People who are proud of their contribution to a science are nonetheless well aware that they would have been unable to make that contribution if it were not for those scientists who have preceded them. It is a fine sentiment, and knowing that it came from Newton - a scientific giant, if ever there was one - it provides a model of humility which scientists would do well to emulate. In this age of the television scientific pundit, unfortunately, scientific humility is often conspicuous by its absence. 59ce067264